السبت، 20 مايو، 2017

تعبير بالانجليزي عن تاج محل



قصة تاج محال عربي أنجليزي
حث باللغه الانجليزيه عن تاج محل
تــــــــــــاج محل,,من عجائب الدنيا,
عبير بالانجليزي عن تاج محل
بحث عن the taj mahal
قصة تاج محل باختصار
معلومات بالانجليزي عن برج ايفل
معلومات بسيطة عن تاج محل
information about taj mahal
taj mahal story
معلومات عن تاج محل بالعربي
who built taj mahal



The Tāj mahal, which means the Persian "palace of the crown", is located in Āgrā, on the banks of the Yamunâ River in the State of Uttar Pradesh, India.
It is a white marble mausoleum built by Muslim Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his wife Arjumand Bânu Begam2, also known as Mumtaz Mahal, which means in Persian "the light of the palace". She died on June 17, 1631, giving birth to her fourteenth child as she went to the country. She found a first burial site in the Zainabad garden in Burhanpur. The construction of the mausoleum begins in 1631 and is completed in its largest part in 16483. Her husband, who died on January 31, 1666, is buried near her.
The Taj Mahal is considered a jewel of Mughal architecture, a style that combines architectural elements of Islamic, Iranian, Ottoman and Indian architecture.
It is considered that the principal architect was Ustad Ahmad Lahauri6,7 of Lahorek 1.
The Taj Mahal Complex
The Taj Mahal is built on the right bank of the Yamunâ, among the pavilions of amenity, the gardens of princes and dignitaries of the Court of Ágrā then capital of the Mughal empire. Its construction begins in 1632. However, there remains uncertainty as to the exact date of completion of the works. Shâh Jahân's official columnist Abdul Hamid Lahori indicates that the Taj Mahal was completed at the end of 1643 or the beginning of 1644. But at the main entrance an inscription indicates that the construction was completed in 1648. The State Of Uttar Pradesh, which officially celebrated the building's 350th anniversary in 2004, said the work was completed in 1654. Of the 20,000 people who worked on the site, there are master craftsmen From Europe and Central Asia. It is considered that the principal architect was Ustad Ahmad Lahauri6,7 from Lahorek 1.
It is erected at the bottom of an ornamental garden (rectangle of 580 by 305 meters) enclosed by an enclosure pierced on each side of four doors three of which are false. The garden is crossed by four crossed canals (the mausoleum is reflected in it when the fountains do not flow) with water jets and fountains, accompanied all along marble pavers, and in the center of a central basin at Level of the shahar. The western, southern and eastern enclosures feature a monumental red sandstone pavilion inlaid with a geometric mosaic of white marble, the symmetrical arrangement of which resembles that of the traditional mosques of the Persian mosques with their four-iwans courtyard. The main door (Darwaza-i Rauza, 30 meters high) which stands in the center of the south wall of the forecourt features a large central iwan flanked by lateral iwans. Framed with four octagonal towers, the door extends from the north side of double galleries with polylobed arches8
It is constructed using materials from various parts of India and the rest of Asia. More than 1,000 elephants are used to transport building materials during construction. White marble is extracted from Rajasthan, jasper comes from Panjab, turquoise and malachite from Tibet, lapis lazuli from Sri Lanka, coral from the Red Sea, carnelian from Persia and Yemen, Deccan onyx And Persia, the garnets of the Ganges and Boundelkand, the agate of Yemen and Jaisalmer, the rock crystal of the Himalayas. In all, twenty-eight types of polychrome fine or ornamental stones were used to compose the marquetry patterns encrusted in white marble.
The Taj Mahal is erected on foundations that must support 25 tons per square meter. They are made of mahogany piles placed in wells fed by the river Yamunâ and filled with rubble and mortar. Changes in the river's course, its water pumped upstream by industry and agriculture, lower its level, drying poles that become more brittle, more fragile and tend to disintegrate9.
The octagonal plan of the mausoleum is typical of the Iranian palace Hacht Behecht and evokes the eight gardens of paradise. This 60-meter-high building stands on a red sandstone terrace, itself surmounted by a quadrangular marble platform of 95.16 meters square and seven meters high. The four autonomous minarets (originality of this monument) of 42 meters high placed at the corners of this platform, slope outwards so that in the event of an earthquake, they collapse in the direction Opposite the tomb. Consisting of three floors punctuated by small circular balconies, they are surmounted by a chhatri. The four identical facades of the tomb contain a large central iwan flanked by smaller lateral iwans arranged on two floors. The same arrangement at the corners makes it an octagonal edifice. The central dome of the tomb, 74 meters high and slightly bulbous, rests on a drum. Its inverted lotus budding shape is surmounted by a bronze pinnacle decorated with a kalash, a Hindu symbol, and a crescent moon, the Islamist symbol itself surmounted by a plate stamped with the name of Allah. This dome is flanked by four smaller domes called chhatris. Two buildings in red sandstone, with three domes in white marble, symmetrically bound the mausoleum: to the left is a mosque that was built to sanctify the place and provide a place of worship for the pilgrims. On the right is an exact symmetrical replica of the mosque, known as jawab ("response"), designed to maintain architectural symmetry but is not used as a mosque because it is not oriented towards Mecca. Finally, at the front of the monument was the traditional Persian chahar bagh ("four gardens"), planted with trees symbolizing Eden, where flowers grew in abundance. The British viceroy Lord Curzon replaced this garden with typically British lawns. The two main alleys traversed by the canals delimit four squares intersected by secondary aisles, in four equal parts. The two main alleys are lined with avenues planted with cypress trees and bordered with greenery and flowerbeds. They are further divided into seven equal parts by secondary walks, adorned with streams lined with narrow roads, the pavement of which consists of small polished pebbles.
The central funerary chamber is an octagonal room containing the two translucent marble cenotaphs of the emperor and empress, covered with inscriptions in finely chiseled Arabic characters, interwoven with inlaid mosaic flowers inlaid with precious stones (lapis- Lazuli, agate, jasper, carnelian, onyx). Surrounded initially by a solid gold grid, the latter was replaced by marble claustra (called Jali) encrusted with precious stones. The subterranean crypt shelters the bodies enveloped in the shroud of the couple which are oriented towards the north and lying on the right side, thus turned towards Mecca. This funerary chamber is surrounded by four two-storey octagonal rooms that communicate with it through corridors13.
The most perfect jewel of Muslim art in India, it is one of the universally admired masterpieces of the heritage of mankind. The Taj Mahal complex has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1983 and is one of the seven new wonders of the world in a 2007 ranking14.

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