السبت، 20 مايو، 2017

تعبير بالانجليزي عن بريطانيا



تعبير بالانجليزي عن بريطانيا
موضوع بالانجليزي عن بريطانيا -
مقال تعبير إنشائي انجليزي عن المملكة المتحدة
معلومات عن بريطانيا.
تعبير بالانجليزي عن بريطانيا
موضوع انجليزي عن لندن قصير وسهل
تعبير عن لندن بالانجليزي مترجم قصير
موضوع عن لندن
معلومات عن لندن بالانجليزي والعربي
تعبير بالانجليزي عن مدينة باريس
موضوع عن لندن بالانجليزي قصير
about london
paragraph about london
Great Britain) is an island off the northwest coast of continental Europe. It represents the majority of the territory of the United Kingdom. In its political sense, this toponym refers to England, Wales and Scotland, as well as most of the island territories adjacent to the exclusion of the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands.
Located at the junction of the Atlantic and the North Sea, it is separated from Ireland by the Irish Sea and the mainland by the Channel. It is the largest and most populous island in the European continent.
Before its name was "Great Britain", this territory (or its southernmost part) was simply called "Britain" (Britannia in Latin) and was populated to the south by Bretons, a Celtic-speaking people resulting from Migratory flows from the continent. To the north lived the Picts, a people long ago celtised but of more ancient origin (and discussed), against the incursions of which the Romans had raised limes, of which the wall of Hadrian. From the end of the third century, and more strongly from the sixth century, a part of the Celtic population of Brittany migrated to the continent, in Armorica, Asturias and Galicia: ("Gallo country" in Brittany), or entirely (Asturias and Galicia). Since then, we have spoken of Insular Britain (Great Britain or Britannia maior) and Continental Brittany (Brittany or Britannia minor: present-day Brittany)
In French, the term "Brittany" ends by attaching itself to the Armorican peninsula, whereas the term "Great Britain" designates the former island Britain. In English, the term Britain is commonly used to refer to "Great Britain" Note 2, while Brittany refers to continental Britain.
Great Britain undergoes successive invasions of population. In the south, Angles and Saxons settled. More to the north are settled Vikings, coming from the current Denmark and Norway. In 1066, England was conquered by the Normans of William the Conqueror.
The unification of Great Britain into a sovereign political state was progressive. The English conquest of Wales ended in 1282 on a battlefield, with the victory of Edward I on Llywelyn, the last independent Welsh prince. The country became a constituent part of the Kingdom of England in 1536.
The crowns of England and Scotland are carried by the same ruler from James (James) I of England and VI of Scotland, who ascended the Scottish throne in 1567 and on the English throne in 1603, The death of his cousin Elizabeth I of England. On October 20, 1604, he proclaimed himself "King of Great Britain, France and Ireland", a title taken up by some of his successors. In the reign of Anne of Great Britain, since the Act of Union of 1707, the parliaments of England and Scotland have been merged and the two nations constitute the same kingdom, the United Kingdom of Great Britain, Britain.
The country is experiencing the industrial revolution earlier than elsewhere, along with trade liberalization, the rapid development of the canals network, and innovations in coal, coke or cotton.
In 1801 the Irish crown, which the English had held since the twelfth century, in turn merged with the British Crown, thus creating the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland", or simply the United Kingdom : This merger was never accepted by the Catholic clergy of Ireland, for it resulted in subjugating the island to the head of the Anglican church and to the power of the Protestants. After more than a century of struggles, the Irish Free State left the Kingdom in 1922, leaving it with the name "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
It is the first country to experience a rapid expansion of the railway and then a massive use of paper money, while precious metals remain dominant elsewhere. The Victorian Era, or the years of the reign of Victoria I of the United Kingdom, from 1837 to 1901 saw Great Britain accentuate her world leadership.
The First World War challenged this dominance, for the benefit of the United States. As early as 1925, England announced its return to the gold standard, the pound being spent in the autumn of 1923 from 76 to 91 francs in ten weeks. This decision of Winston Churchill, taken under the influence of a "City" which wants to remain first world financial center, is criticized by the economist John Maynard Keynes because resting on the parity of a pound for 4.86 dollars, Which penalizes British industry2. The index of manufacturing output was only 106 in 1928 in Great Britain, on a 100 basis in 1913, compared with 118 in Germany and 139 in France3.
The English were the losers of the strong expansion of the 1920s.
Since 1952, Elizabeth II reigns over the kingdom. The term "Great Britain" is sometimes mistakenly used as a synonym for the United Kingdom, especially since all the inhabitants of the kingdom are British citizens. The United Kingdom includes Northern Ireland which has never been part of Great Britain.
Britain emerged from a financial crisis when Margaret Thatcher became prime minister in 1979: after an annual inflation rate of 25% in 1975, the bond market was boycotted, forcing the Labor government, which did not A majority in the House of Commons, to ask the IMF for $ 3.9 billion in 19764, which pushed the pound sterling before being caught up in October 1978 by increasingly unpopular general strikes, In January-February. It is to weaken the trade unions of the nationalized sector, blurred with public opinion, that privatizations associate millions of English citizens.

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