الثلاثاء، 23 مايو، 2017

Suggestopedia

Suggestopedia
Background: Teaching method developed by the Bulgarian psychotherapist GeorgiLozanov.
Goal: lower students’ anxiety and affective filter in order for learning to take place.
Principles and Methods: 1) Physical surroundings and atmosphere in classroom are the vital factors to make sure that "the students feel comfortable and confident". 2) Teachers should not act in a directive way. 3) Art and music.
Techniques: 1) The teacher teaches the material in “a playful manner”. 2) The teacher reads with intoning as selected music is played. Occasionally, the students read the text together with the teacher. 3) The students sing classical songs and play games. 4) The students spontaneously speak and interact in the target language without interruption or correction.
Materials: 1) Colorful environment. 2) Music. 3) Grammatical information is displayed in the classroom. 4) Students work from handouts/ lengthy dialogs.
Advantages: Lower students’ affective filter, it makes them more relaxed.
Disadvantages: Environment limitation: Most schools in developing countries have large.

Total Physical Response
Background: 1) Developed by James Asher, a professor emeritus of psychology at San José State University. It is based on the coordination of language and physical movement. 2) The method is an example of the comprehension approach to language teaching.
Goal: To develop oral fluency and listening comprehension skills.
Principles and Methods: 1) Emphasize the importance of listening on language development. 2) Do not require spoken output in the early stages of learning. 3) Students are not forced to speak until they acquire enough language through listening that they start to speak spontaneously. 4) At the beginning stages native language is allowed.
Techniques: 1) Dialogue. 2) Demonstration. 3) Imitating actions.
Materials: 1) Realia. 2) Posters. 3) props.
Advantages: It is fun, easy, and memorable It is a good tool for building vocabulary.
Disadvantages: It is limited, since everything cannot be explained with this method.

The Communicative Language Teaching
Background: 1) Dell Hymes developed the concept of communicative competence. This is neatly summed up by Hymes’s statement, “There are rules of use without which the rules of grammar would be useless.” 2) Canale and Swain (1998) identify four dimensions of communicative competence: a) Grammatical competence b) Sociolinguistic competence. c) Discourse competence. d) Strategic competence.
Goal: Emphasizes interaction as both the means and the ultimate goal of study..
Principles and Methods: 1) Use of authentic language. 2) Learners should be given the opportunity to express their opinions. 3) Learning to use language forms appropriately is an important part of communicative competence. 4) Communicative interaction encourages negotiation of meaning.
Techniques: 1) Authentic materials. 2) Scrambled sentences. 3) Language games. 4) Picture story. 5) Role play.
Materials: 1) No materials 2) Materials are developed through communication.
Evaluation: Oral and written.
Advantages: Greatly enhanced the student’s interest. Communicative language teaching encourage students to participate in
Disadvantages:there is no text, grammar rules are not presented. Students with low levels of proficiency in the target language may find it difficult to participate in oral communicative activities
Series Method
Background: Language that is expression. It originated by Francois Gouin.
Goal: help the learner communicate in the target language.
Principles and Methods: 1) Moves students from receptive to productive language. 2) Covers a range of contexts including a cultural practice, appropriate behavior in a particular situation or classroom process. 3) No translation. 4) No grammar.
Role of the teacher: Offer students series of connected sentences.
Role of the learner: Repeat a series of connected sentences.
Techniques: 1) Teacher presents orally using words, pantomime and props. 2) Teacher repeats orally, class joins in with pantomime but now words. 3) Class pantomimes series as teacher repeats orally without actions. 4) Class imitates series orally and with actions.
Advantages: Develop the communicative skills of the learners in the target language.
Disadvantages: Less focus is given to grammar and writing.


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