الخميس، 25 مايو، 2017

تعبير انجليزي عن مصادر الطاقة

تعبير انجليزي عن مصادر الطاقة
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تعبير انجليزي عن مصادر الطاقة
موضوع عن الطاقة بالانجليزي
بحث عن الطاقة الشمسية باللغة الانجليزية
موضوع تعبير عن توفير الطاقة
موضوع عن مصادر الطاقة
موضوع تعبير عن الطاقة
موضوع عن توفير الطاقة
تعبير عن الطاقة الشمسية
برجراف عن كيفيه حفظ الطاقه
Energy sources are divided into two main segments: raw materials and natural phenomena. In general, the former provide the so-called fossil energies while the latter provide the so-called renewable energies.
Summary:
I. Fossil energies
II. Nuclear energy
III. Renewable energies
IV. The French primary energy mix
V. The French Electric Power Mix in 2015
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Fossil energies
Fossil fuels come from the combustion of raw materials such as coal, oil or natural gas. These fuels are the result of a process of fossilization that took several million years, which is why they are called "fossil fuels" producing "fossil energy". Reserves of raw materials are abundant, but unfortunately non-renewable. Fossil fuels are therefore polluting and their reserves are not infinite. Today, natural gas is the least polluting fossil energy, due to its reduced CO2 emis- sions. This energy source is presented today as a good complement to renewable energies, whose production is intermittent, due to its flexibility.
Nuclear energy
Nuclear energy also comes from a raw material that is uranium, so it is a fossil energy. However, it is considered an alternative to other fossil fuels because it is not emitting CO2 even if it raises problems of safety and storage of radioactive waste. Although it has offered France an energy independence for half a century, the cost of maintaining the French nuclear fleet is increasing today, due to the extension of plant life and the strengthening of standards Of safety. As for the new generation of reactors, the cost of the Flamanville EPR is very high.
Renewable energies

Renewable energies, as the name implies, are not exhaustible. They are also referred to as "green energies" or "clean energies" because they originate from natural phenomena (wind, solar radiation, sea currents) and do not cause direct pollution - but sometimes indirect pollution due to mining (lithium, coltan , Copper ...) allowing the creation of wind turbines and solar panels in particular. Their exploitation is booming: they do not yet replace other sources of energy but offer the possibility of significantly reducing the use of fossil fuels. The energy transition is also one of the biggest challenges of the 21st century.
hydroelectricity
Hydro power plants convert energy from streams, waterfalls and even tides or swells and are an inexhaustible source of energy that does not emit CO2. On the other hand, the consequences on the aquatic environment or the environment in general can be significant, especially if the construction of a dam leads to the flooding of land over large areas (eg the Three Gorges dam in China).
Wind energy
This green energy is promised a bright future in view of its inexhaustible nature. In theory, capturing one-thousandth of the available wind energy on Earth would indeed provide for all the world's electricity needs. Technological advances over the past decade have made wind turbines both more efficient and less costly to produce.
However, it has the major disadvantage of having an intermittent production. In order to ensure the stability of the electricity transmission network, electricity production must always be about the same as consumption by enterprises and households, and the time at which the wind blows is not controlled. Battery storage systems, which must be able to bypass this problem, must become more efficient in the coming decades: it is on this condition that green energy can become the world's largest source of energy.
The installation of land-based wind turbines sometimes provokes the hostility of the local residents because their presence alters the landscape, generates noise and can present a danger to the local fauna. In France, the State now favors offshore and coastal wind farms, where nuisances are reduced, and where the yield is often much higher.
Solar energy
The sun's light energy is collected by sensors on solar panels and converted into electrical (solar photovoltaic) or thermal (solar thermal, as for solar water heaters). The installation of photovoltaic panels can allow individuals to meet more than half of their heating needs (water and home). Like wind energy, photovoltaic solar power has an intermittent production depending on the elements. In the context of an energy transition towards green energy, states will therefore have to continue to rely on complementary sources of energy.
Geothermal energy
The principle is to exploit the natural geothermal flux on the surface of the globe. In general, this flow is rather small and requires important devices (drilling ...) in order to be able to be captured. This type of energy does not depend on atmospheric conditions and therefore has the advantage of being quasi-continuous. Techniques are sophisticated in geothermal heat pumps, which absorb heat from the ground via a network of horizontal or vertical sensors, and then transmit it to heat networks that return it to the interior of the dwelling.
The biomass
Biomass energy is produced by burning biological materials such as wood, by converting to biofuels, or by extracting biomethane from organic waste in methanizers. Even if the combustion produces greenhouse gases, biomass remains a renewable energy: the growth of trees absorbs as much CO2 as their combustion releases in the atmosphere.
The primary energy mix in France

In order to have a global view of a country's dependence on different energy sources, one considers the primary energy mix that integrates not only the origin of electricity production but also the energy used for automotive carburation , Fuel oil, gas or wood used for heating. Within the chart below, some of the gas, coal and oil are used for electricity generation.

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