الأحد، 21 مايو، 2017

تعبير انجليزي عن جرش

تعبير انجليزي عن جرش
جرش مدينة أردنية، وعاصمة محافظة جرش
موضوع بالانجليزي عن جرش
تعبير انجليزي عن اثار جرش
موضوع بالانجليزي مكتوب جاهز مميز مختصر قصير للمدرسه او للجامعه او للبحث او للتعبير
معلومات عن جرش
موضوع انشاء بالانكليزي عن اثار جرش
موضوع انشاء انجليزي عن جرش للصف السادس
موضوع انجليزي قصير عن جرش
معلومات عن مهرجان جرش بالانجليزي
موضوع انشاء عن البتراء باللغة الانجليزية
موضوع انشاء انجليزي عن اثار جرش
jerash
موضوع عن عجلون بالانجليزي

موضوع انشاء انجليزي عن العقبة
جرش  التاريخ  التسمية  السكان  السياحة  آثار جرش
موضوع تعبير عن جرش بالانجليزي
تعبير انجليزي عن جرش
موضوع انشاء عن البتراء باللغة الانجليزية
موضوع عن عجلون بالانجليزي
موضوع انشاء انجليزي عن العقبة
موضوع عن جرش
اثار جرش
المدرج الروماني في جرش
معلومات عن مهرجان جرش بالانجليزي
موضوع تعبير عن جرش
Jerash is the chief town of the province of Jerash in the kingdom of Jordan. The population of the agglomeration exceeds 120,000 inhabitants.
The modern city has established itself around the site of the ancient city of Gerasa, sometimes francised in Gerase.
History
Gerasa was founded at the end of the 4th century. Its inhabitants claimed that the city had been founded by Alexander the Great in favor of veterans of his army. This claim was expressed belatedly in the form of a coin struck during the reign of Caracalla in the name of "Alexander of Macedonia, founder of Gerasa." Nevertheless, the city only took its rise in the 2nd century BC. AD, as the excavations failed to find traces of an earlier establishment.
The city was part of the Decapolis. It was conquered in 84 BC. J.-C.4 by Alexandre Jannée who died there in 76 av. During the siege of a neighboring fortress, Regaba. It is taken by the NabataeanAretas III in 73 BC. BC, and finally by the Romans (Pompey) in 63 BC. The latter made it an opulent city: Gerasa even received the visit of the Emperor Hadrian in 129.
Gerasa becomes the seat of a bishopric in the fourth century. It was then plundered by the Persians in 614, then the Arabs in 635. It then underwent several earthquakes, the most devastating of which was probably that of 747-748, which violently affected many other towns in the region. The coup de grace was given to him by the clashes between Muslims and Crusaders during the Crusades, when the temple of Artemis was transformed into a fortress by the Arabs.
The first excavations were carried out in the 1920s and 1930s by members of the British-American team at Yale University, the American School of Oriental Research, and the British School of Jerusalem; After the publication of Kraeling published in 1938, a sort of report of all the excavations carried out on the site up to that point, the latter experienced a floating moment before being really taken up again in the 1980s, notably in the form of a project International cooperation, involving archaeologists from all over the world, the Jerash Archaeological Project. Each team was assigned a portion of the site to be excavated and renovated. The French team, led by Jacques Seigne, is still working on the renovation of the sanctuary of Zeus.
The site
A large number of monuments have been cleared and often reconstituted:
The arch of Hadrian (25 m × 21.5 m), built at the southern entrance of the city on the occasion of the visit of the emperor Hadrian in 129, reconstituted after 1980 by Jordanian archaeologists.
The hippodrome: it is probably one of the smallest of the Roman world. In the Byzantine period, which was strongly affected by the earthquakes that followed in the region, it was not rebuilt, but reoccupied by the local population, notably to house pottery workshops, visible thanks to the famous brick kilns; A deacon, who had his church built nearby, was also resident there by reorganizing three disused premises of the hippodrome, which he pave mosaics.
The two great temples of Zeus and Artemis were built essentially in the middle of the second century AD. BC, maintaining a rivalry between the faithful of each of the two divinities.
Another temple, under the church of St. Theodore, was probably dedicated to Dionysus. A fourth temple, reduced to its foundations, was named "temple C" by the members of the US-British team of the 1930s, no clue having been found to say to which god it was vowed.
The oval forum is undoubtedly the biggest forum of the Roman Empire: at the same time a public office, an agora and a market (many shops have been found around it), it is an essential architectural element Of the urban planning of the city since it allows, by a style effect, to make the visual junction between the cardo maximus and the sanctuary of Zeus which, thanks to the particular shape of the oval place, seems to be in continuity Of the main road of the city.



Two bathing establishments, which extended to the northern tetrapipus, are largely collapsed. The "Placcus baths", which were not very excavated, but apparently of remarkable size, were situated on the other side of the wadi of Jerash, that is to say on the west side of the city, next to the Cathedral of St. Theodore , Just below the "Clergy House". The vestiges of the kilns of the hypocaust, which are used to heat the caldarium, are also distinguished; An inscription of the extreme end of the fifth century attributes the construction to Bishop Placcus.
The macellum or market, probably the most beautiful monument of the city with the nymphéedede to the Tyche of the city, was a central place for commerce, strongly present in the city, as can be seen from the numerous shops that line The streets, notably at the foot of the sanctuary of Artemis.
The vestiges of houses are relatively brief, mostly reoccupying public buildings of the Roman era: two houses were discovered on the eastern side of the wadi, covered with mosaics, one of which describes a procession bacchic , And a second, the four seasons, a theme that occurs quite frequently in the region (see in particular in Madaba); On the western side of the town, the "house of the Blues" is thus named after an inscription, as well as a splendid mansion of the Byzantine-Umayyad period, the apparent remains of which date mainly from the Arab period; Finally, a residential area northwest of the Cathedral of Saint Theodore was cleared and excavated quickly in the 1930s, with individual domestic structures, probably intended to house members of the cathedral clergy. This complex is now buried under the embankment resulting from the clearing of the sanctuary of Artemis. Nearby is the Clergy House, still visible, considered by Kraeling as a lodging for the clergy, but whose destination remains still doubtful, for lack of thorough digs.
The two theaters: one theater north of the city, the other to the south, located respectively next to the shrines of Artemis and Zeus. These theaters have been remarkably well restored and host local shows, usually during the summer.
A wall still surrounds almost the whole city. After abandoning its first walls created before our era, the city was surrounded by a new rampart which reduced its dimensions, bringing it back to the south gate, Outside the whole area from the south gate to the Hadrian's arc, and including the racecourse.
In the 4th century, the Christian community was numerous and traces of thirteen churches were found on the floors covered with mosaics, including a cathedral, the Cathedral of St. Theodore. The remains of a synagogue of the same period, located to the north-west of the sanctuary of Artemis, were also found.
Recent History

Modern Jerash has taken a very rapid extension and now reaches nearly 135,000 inhabitants, according to the 2004 survey. This rapid increase in population is due to internal immigration but also to the arrival of many Palestinian refugees.

ليست هناك تعليقات:

إرسال تعليق