السبت، 20 مايو، 2017

تعبير بالانجليزي عن تطور التعليم





تعبير بالانجليزي عن تطور التعليم
موضوع تعبير باللغة الانجليزية عن تعليم نظرية التطور
بحث عن تطوير التعليم
موضوع مترجم من اللغه الانجليزية الي العربية عن اهمية التعليم
برجراف عن التعليم الخاص بالانجليزي
موضوع تعبير عن التعليم واهميته بأهم الافكار والعناصر
تعبير بالانجليزي عن تطور التعليم
برجراف عن تطوير التعليم بالانجليزي
برجراف عن education
برجراف عن اصلاح التعليم
موضوع عن العلم بالانجليزي قصير مترجم
اريد فقرة باللغة الانجليزية عن التعليم
مقال بالانجليزي عن التعليم في مصر
موضوع عن اهمية التعليم
براجراف بالانجليزى عن التعليم فى مصر



The teaching of evolution in France has recently been shaken by the American situation, widely relayed in Europe by the media, often without distinction of history or context. Some notions are recurrent and we propose a definition, summary in view of the complexity of the historical, scientific and philosophical anchoring of the debate:

    Darwinism: "Darwin's theory (in Origin of Species, 1859) that species are derived from one another according to the laws of natural selection" (Robert, 2003). Jean Gayon (2000) recalls that Darwinism, "conventional linguistic expression," does not necessarily cover Darwin's thought.
    Theory of evolution: "Recognizing evolution leads to the existence of a history, on Earth, of all living organisms. Understanding the evolution consists of identifying the mechanisms that have governed the current structuring of biodiversity [...]. Thus the research underpinning the concept of evolution is clearly separated into two parts; Some aim at reconstructing the history of life, others tend to understand the modalities and processes of evolution "(Le Guyader, 2003).
    Creationism: a current of ideas according to which the biblical accounts of Creation (Genesis) have a scientific content and value, and which has opposed Darwin since the nineteenth century. American justice has not recognized Creationism as a scientific status, and therefore can not be part of the science class.
    Intelligent Design (ID) or intelligent design: a current of ideas which, while admitting the theory of evolution, sees in it the effects of a superior intelligence to the work "(Arnould, 2007). Its proponents are called Iders.

To understand the terms of the debate in the United States, it is also important to know three specific features of American society:

    The special relationship between science and religion since the end of the eighteenth century, which makes scientistic theology, the avatar of natural theology, a common frame of thought explaining the easy acclimatization of Intelligent Design and the persistence of the creationist movement;
    The strong links between politics and religion;
    Some aspects of schooling. Boards of education, elected at county level and in which parents are represented, are responsible for voting school curricula and choosing textbooks.
In this context, Iders such as Michael Bebe (Darwin's Black Box, 1996) or Phillip. E Johnson (Darwin On Trial, 1993) argue that Intelligent Design is a scientific doctrine. If necessary, relaying creationism, they appealed to the federal courts to judge that intelligent design was a scientific and non-religious doctrine, thus making it legally possible to legally claim it in the public school science course. Which the Judge refused. Indeed, by renouncing to prohibit the teaching of evolution in the public schools but by imposing in parallel (principle of balanced treatment) the teaching of the "science of creation", Arkansas and the dozen states concerned Intended to bypass the First Amendment of the United States Constitution, according to which it is "forbidden to promulgate a law that would grant official recognition to any religion whatsoever"; Hence the position of the federal district judge in January 1982: these laws - finally abolished in 1987 - "constitute ... an attempt to introduce the biblical version of creation into public education programs".

Analyzing "American creationism and its avatars," Dominique Lecourt associates it with American Protestant fundamentalists: the Little Rock trial (Arkansas, 1981) reveals that Intelligent Design has renewed the creationist struggle and made emulators (Lecourt, 2007) . In his 15 Answers to Creationnist nonsense, John Rennie (2002) is embarrassed to acknowledge that "the scientifically advanced nation the world has ever known is home to a large number of creationists capable of convincing politicians, judges and citizens." The anti-evolutionist Philip E. Johnson acknowledges (in Darwin on Trial) that Intelligent Design is also a strategy for religious discourse to invest the science class. Teachers are becoming more and more involved with evolution, and they must both be familiar with this theory, and how it is misled by its detractors, from gross error to speciosity, argument. John Rennie offers teachers a list of questions and answers that can help them answer their students. Or to justify themselves before the judge.

The scientific community is reacting: the Coalition of Scientific Societies brings together scientists and social scientists to present actions aimed at the general public. The good image of scientists in American society (more than 70% of Americans have a favorable image of the scientist) is a promising element that should push them to engage, especially since the majority of respondents want That scientists (more than 85% of them must be researchers, science teachers or doctors) tell them about science, not about school boarders or celebrities. On the subject of evolution, the public expects information from researchers, professors and religious, demonstrating possible references (Nelson, 2007). In any case, the commitment of scientists is a cornerstone of the teaching of evolution (Coalition of Scientific Societies, 2008).

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