الثلاثاء، 23 مايو، 2017

تعبير بالانجليزي عن غاندي

تعبير بالانجليزي عن غاندي

موهانداس كرمشاند غاندي

تعبير عن بطل شخص مشهور شخصية اثرت في حياتك بطل بطلك المفضل

مهاتما غاندي الهند الحديثة إلى الاستقلال، والتخلص من الاستعمار الإنجليزي

نبذة عن شخصية المهاتما غاندي

معلومات عن المهاتما غاندي

تعبير بالانجليزي عن غاندي

موضوع عن غاندي

بحث عن nelson mandela باللغة الانجليزية

بحث عن مهاتما غاندي باللغة الانجليزية

نبذة عن غاندي بالانجليزي

نبذة عن حياة مهاتما غاندي بالانجليزي

نبذة مختصرة عن حياة غاندي

life history mahatma gandhi

قصة حياة غاندي مختصرة بالانجليزي


Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi born in Portbarrat (Gujarat) on October 2, 1869 and murdered at Delhile January 30, 1948, is a political leader, an important spiritual guide of India and of the movement for the independence of that country. He is commonly known and called in India and in the world as the Mahatma Gandhi (Sanskrit, mahatma: "great soul") - "Mahatma" being a title that he refused all his life to associate with his person - Gandhi, Gandhiji or Bapu ("father" in several languages in India).
He was a pioneer and dusatyagraha theorist, from resistance to oppression through mass civil disobedience, this theorization was based on ahimsa ("non-violence"), which helped lead India 'independence. Gandhi has inspired many liberal and civil rights movements around the world and many other personalities such as Albert Schweitzer, Martin Luther King, Nelson Mandela, Steve Biko, the Dalai Lama, Aung San Suu Kyi, Moncef Marzouki and Malala Yousafzai. His important criticisms of Western modernity, forms of authority and oppression (including the state), also earned him the reputation of criticism of development whose ideas have influenced many political thinkers.
A lawyer who studied law in England, Gandhi developed a method of non-violent civil disobedience in South Africa by organizing the struggle of the Indian community for his actions in human dignity and social justice. civil rights. On his return to India, Gandhi encouraged farmers and the working poor to protest against the high taxes and widespread discrimination, and on the national scene to fight the colonial laws created by the British. Gandhi became the leader of the Indian National Congress and led a national campaign to help the poor, for the liberation of Indian women, for brotherhood among communities of different religions or ethnic groups, for an end to untouchability and discrimination Descastes, and for the economic self-sufficiency of the nation, but especially for Swaraj - the independence of India from all foreign domination.
Gandhi led the march of salt, famous opposition to the tax on salt. He also launched the appeal to the Quit India movement on 8 August 1942. He was imprisoned several times in South Africa and India for his activities; He spent six years of his life in prison.
Deeply religious and adept at Indian philosophy, Gandhi simply lived, organizing an ashram that was self-sufficient. He made and washed his own clothes - the traditional Indian dhoti and shawl, with cotton spun with a charkha (spinning wheel) - and was a vegetarian militant. He practiced rigorous fasts over long periods, to self-purify himself but also as a means of protest, influence and reform in others.
Gandhi is recognized as the Father of the Nation in India, where his birthday is a national holiday. This date was also declared "International Day of Non-Violence" by the United Nations General Assembly in 20074.
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Truth
Gandhi dedicated his whole life to the discovery of truth or satya. He tried to reach it by learning from his own mistakes and practicing experiments on himself. This is particularly the theme of his book Autobiography or my experiences of truth.
Gandhi established that the biggest battle to win was to defeat his own demons, fears and insecurities. He summarized his beliefs when he first said, "God is truth." He then changed the statement to "the truth is God." Thus satya (the truth) in the philosophy of Gandhi is "God."
It was in South Africa, struggling for the rights of the Indians, that Gandhi discovered the importance of respect for the truth. "Like an immense tree, it gives all the more fruit that one cares for. In the image of a mine where the depths are hollowed out, the more precious are the diamonds discovered there, it is remarkable that the more we explore the truth, the more numerous and varied the services it makes us assume. "195.
Simplicity

Gandhi sincerely believed that a person involved in social service should lead a simple life that would lead him to the brahmacharya. His practice of asceticism is inspired by the thought of the American philosopher and poet Henry David Thoreau. This implicity began with the renunciation of the Western lifestyle he led in South Africa. He called it "to reduce oneself to zero"; "Living simply so that all could simply live" were his values, his way of life, which meant abandoning all superfluous expense, leading a simple life and washing his own clothes. On one occasion he sent back the gifts offered by the natives for his help to the community.
Gandhi spent one day of each week in silence. He believed that to abstain from speaking brought him inner peace. This came from the Hindu principles of the mauna (in Sanskrit, मौन - silence) and shanti (peace). On those days he communicated with others by writing on paper.
For three and a half years, at the age of 37, Gandhi refused to read the newspapers, claiming that the tumultuous news of the world caused him more confusion than his own inner turmoil.
Returning to India after his stay in South Africa, he abandoned the wearing of Western clothes, which he associated with wealth and success. He dressed to be accepted by the poorest in India, and he promoted the use of cloth woven at home (khadi). Gandhi and his followers were making the clothes they wore; They encouraged others to do the same with the aim of restoring a certain economic autonomy to rural India, which was rooted in the dominance of the British industry which then owned the industrial mills. The wheel was soon incorporated into the flag of the party of the Indian congress.
Gandhi carried the dhoti (male equivalent of the sari) all the rest of his life, not only as a sign of simplicity, but also because this garment, spun with his hands, constituted for him a guarantee not to endorse the exploitation of workers British or Indian in industrial spinning mills.
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Vegetarianism
The practice of vegetarianism is strongly rooted in the Hindu and Jain traditions, and in most of the Hindus and his family were vegetarians in his homeland of Gujarat. Before leaving for London, Gandhi had promised his mother that he would not eat meat. He kept his promise and his vegetarianism became an integral part of his political philosophy of non-violence. He wrote the book The Moral Basis of Vegetarianism200 and several articles on the subject, some of which were published by the London Vegetarian Society201 of which Gandhi was a member, and where he made many friends, such as President Dr. Josiah Oldfield. Having read and admired the works of Henry Stephens Salt, the young Mohandas met him and corresponded for a long time with the vegetarian militant.
Gandhi spent a great deal of time promoting vegetarianism during and after his stay in London, seeing his propagation as a mission to be accomplished199; He thus came to declare "that the greatness of a nation is recognized by the manner in which it treats its animals." In addition to the ethical dimension of vegetarianism, he considered the economic dimension, since meat was (and still is) more expensive than cereals, vegetables and fruits, and thus helped Indians with low incomes. Finally, meat production requires a high availability of land and water for fattening animals, and establishes a monoculture that favors the food industry and large landowners rather than the local and varied production of Indian peasants Small plots of arable land.
He noted in his autobiography that vegetarianism was the beginning of his deep commitment to brahmacharya; Without total control over his food needs he could not have succeeded in the brahmacharya.
Gandhi also had a strong tendency to vegetalism, out of compassion for cows, declaring about his abandonment of all dairy (making him a vegan, since "Indian vegetarianism" excludes eggs): "Religious considerations had been the When it was a question of abjuring the milk. The image of the barbarous methods which the Calcutta govals used to milk their cows and buffaloes until the last drop of milk had haunted me then. I also had the feeling that, just as meat was not human food, milk could not be eaten either ... " And in doing so: "I refuse to take milk, products in which milk enters, and no meat. If this refusal were to sign my death warrant, my feeling is that I should not change it. "
Brahmacharya

Brahmacharya (spiritual and practical purity) is largely associated with celibacy and asceticism. The brahmacharya, which corresponds to one of the four periods of human life such as Hinduism theorizes, is related to a form of discipline of the body whose spiritual or religious aim is the detachment of the senses Would impede the liberation (moksha) of the soul). Gandhi conceived brahmacharya as a means of getting closer to God and as the foundation stone of his personal realization. For Gandhi, brahmacharya meant "control of the senses in thought, words and actions" 202. This control passes by tearing away the roots of the passions that we wish to destroy: therefore, first of all by thought itself; Gandhi considered-in the straight line of Hindu wisdom-that he who was a true practitioner of the brahmacharya no longer even conceived the passions, not only in his awakened mind but also in his dreams-these thoughts formulated In sleep and believed to be uncontrollable.203 The control of the conscious self, therefore, depends first and foremost on a mastery of its own unconscious, which is explicated in the classical Hindu philosophy of the Yoga-Sutra of Patañjali.

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