السبت، 20 مايو، 2017

تعبير عن وظيفة المحامي بالانجليزي






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Occupation: lawyer

The profession of lawyer is both famous and little known. Famous, because everyone knows what a lawyer, a trade that often inspires a certain respect to most people. Not well known, for the profession of lawyer is now far removed from the image of Epinal that the population does.

The few lines that follow will help you to discover the underwear of this profession today exercised by more than 45 000 people in France.

1. The profession of lawyer

The lawyer is an auxiliary of justice, that is to say a person who contributes to the functioning of the public service of Justice. It has two main functions: to assist and defend its clients in legal proceedings, and to advise clients on legal matters outside any dispute.

Until 1992, these two main functions were separated and corresponded to two distinct occupations: lawyers on one side who were merely assisting and defending litigants who had recourse to their services and legal advice on the other, advising Their clients to carry out legal operations, apart from any litigation (these were advice in the true sense, advice helping their clients to make the right decisions in business).

But on 1 January 1992, the professions of lawyers and legal advisers merged into a single profession: that of lawyer. Yet even today, 14 years after this considerable change in both professions, many people see lawyers as lawyers in litigation roles. This image is not false but it corresponds more to the profession of lawyer as it was exercised before 1992. Since then, it sticks very partly to the reality. Only a portion of the lawyers continues to plead and pace the corridors of the courthouses. A good third of the lawyers almost never set foot on it and concentrated on legal advice. These somewhat special lawyers are now known as "business lawyers". Their clients are mostly companies or wealthy individuals who try to help them to develop harmoniously and efficiently their business (by limiting risks, inventing juridico-financial arrangements ...). Business lawyers, unlike the "classical" lawyers, work continuously with professional figures (financial, accounting ...).

Thus, in spite of the 1992 reform which merged the two professions, there is in practice a clear division between the lawyers who advocate and carry out their activities in matters pertaining to persons (family law, civil law, criminal law ...) And lawyers who do not advocate or rarely exercise their talents in the field of business (commercial law, tax law, stock exchange law, industrial property law, etc.).

The classification of a lawyer in one or the other of these categories depends on the specialization chosen by him during his studies.

2. Studies to be followed

To become a lawyer, you must logically study law (see the section "Law studies"). During this period, the student who intends to be a lawyer will receive a general education in law (the first two years) before specializing (a little in the 3rd year, a lot in 4th and a lot in the 5th year if he Goes so far). Four years of law school is a minimum requirement to be a lawyer because only those with a Master 1 in law (for the former know that it is a master's degree) or a diploma recognized as equivalent by An Order of the Minister of Justice, can take the examination which will allow them to enter one of the 15 regional centers of training to the profession of lawyer (CRFPA) situated all over France (in Paris, the CRFPA Is called the Bar Training School). This examination is organized by universities that provide legal training and have judicial education institutes (IEJ) in which law students can prepare for this examination.

The entrance examination to the CRFPA can be presented only three times, which allows two failures but not three. The success rate of this examination varies between 20 and 30% on average according to the universities. In practice, it is observed that more and more students who are attempting this examination hold a Master 2 in Law (equivalent to the former DESS and DEA), that is to say a 5-year diploma Graduate studies in law. Some have even two Masters and / or a diploma in another field (mastère d'école de commerce, LLM ...). The review of the CLFRC is rather difficult and more of a competition than a review (there is approximately the same number of receipts each year, which results in the percentage of successes up or down According to the number of candidates registered for the exam ...).

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