الاثنين، 22 مايو، 2017

تعبير بالانجليزي عن سوريا

تعبير بالانجليزي عن سوريا
موضوع بالانجليزي عن سوريا
سوريا الجمهوريّة العربيّة السوريّة وعاصمتها مدينة دمشق
موضوع قصير عن سوريا بالانجليزي موضوع انجليزي
تعبير بالانجليزي عن سوريا
موضوع عن دمشق بالانجليزي مترجم
موضوع انجليزي عن سوريا للصف الثامن
موضوع قصير عن سوريا
موضوع تعبير عن الوطن سوريا
موضوع انجليزي عن تدمر
موضوع عن اطفال سوريا بالانجليزي
موضوع انجليزي عن موقع اثري في سوريا
موضوع تعبير عن مدينة دمشق بالانجليزي

Syria, in long form, the Syrian Arab Republic is a country of the Near East located on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea: the Levantine Basin.
Until the nineteenth century, Syria was called Bilad el-Cham (بلاد الشام). During the Ottoman Empire area was a time grouped, including present Syria, present Lebanon, present Jordan and Palestine. During Antiquity, these countries were distinctly Phenicia, Palestine, Assyria and part of Western Mesopotamia.
From February 1958 to the end of September 1961, Egypt and Syria briefly united in the United Arab Republic, until the statehood of General Haydar al-Kuzbar.
In 1970, after a series of unstable military dictatorships, Hafez al-Assad, then Minister of Defense, took power by a new coup. Its highly authoritarian regime, structured around a single party, the Baas, has established a control of the whole of the Syrian political life. He is responsible for the massacre of Hama.
At his death in 2000, his son, Bashar al-Assad, succeeded him and maintained the regime instituted by his father, with a certain relaxation of freedoms at the beginning of mandate. At the beginning of 2011, the Syrian Civil War began in the context of the Arab Spring6. From 2011 to September 2016, nearly 500,000 people died and 2 million were injured7.

History
Detailed articles: History of Syria and Syria under the Ottoman Empire.
Archaeologists have shown that Syria welcomes one of the oldest civilizations and Amorites (one of the oldest peoples of antiquity).
In the excavated town of Ebla in northwestern Syria, archaeologists discovered in 1975 the remains of a large Semitic empire, from the north of the Red Sea to Turkey and to Mesopotamia Eastern.
This empire dating back from 2500 to 2400 BC. The Ebla language is the oldest Semitic language. Syria has other major archaeological sites such as that of Mari where a code comparable to the Hammurabi Code was found in Babylon, Ugarit and Doura Europos.
Syria was occupied successively by the Canaanites, Phoenicians, Hebrews, Arameans, Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, Greeks, Armenians, Romans, Nabataeans, Byzantines, Arabs, and partly by the Crusaders, By the Ottoman Turks and finally by the French, to whom the SDN entrusted a provisional protectorate to set up, as well as in Lebanon, the conditions for a future political independence.
Geographical Syria is the place where the first forms of urbanization appeared10.

Syria is a significant country in the history of Christianity. Paul of Tarsus, the future Saint Paul, was converted to Christianity on the road to Damascus, and established a church first in Antioch in ancient Syria (now in Turkey). It is from this port that he left for several of his mission trips.
Damascus was founded in the 3rd millennium BC. J.-C.11; It is one of the oldest cities in the world and has been inhabited without interruption (like Benares and Jericho). After the arrival of the Muslim conquerors, Damascus became the capital of the Umayyad Empire, and reached a prestige and power still unrivaled in Syrian history. This empire extended from Spain to Central Asia (661-750 AD). After the fall of the Umayyads, a new empire was created in Baghdad, the Abbasid Empire. In 1260, Damascus became the provincial capital of the Mamluk empire. In 1400, the city was largely destroyed by Tamerlane: Damascus was almost entirely burned, and the Damascene artisans were removed to work in Samarkand. Once rebuilt, Damascus served as capital until 1516. In 1517, the city and the country fell under Ottoman occupation. The Ottomans ruled the country for over 400 years until 1918, except for the brief period when the Egyptian Ibrahim Pasha occupied the country from 1832 to 1840.

Syrian Civil War
In early 2011, the Arab Spring reached Syria. Democratic and predominantly peaceful demonstrations are taking place across the country against the Baathist regime of President Bashar al-Assad. These demonstrations are repressed brutally by the regime and gradually, the protest movement turns into an armed rebellion.


Many belligerents are involved in the conflict. The Free Syrian Nationalist Army is the first movement to carry out the rebellion, but from 2013 it is supplanted by Sunni Islamist groups such as Ahrar al-Sham, Jaysh al-Islam or the al-Nosra Front, the Syrian branch al-Qaeda. Rebel groups are supported mainly by Turkey, Qatar and Saudi Arabia. For its part, the Syrian regime is maintained thanks to the help of Iran and Russia. Iran deploys forces of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps in Syria after the conflict began, and afterwards dozens of Islamist militias sponsored by Tehran gain Syria in their turn; Such as the Lebanese of Hizbullah, the Hazaras Afghans of the Fatimid Brigade or the Iraqis of the Badr Organization and the Harakat Hezbollah al-Nujaba. For its part Russia intervenes militarily in September 2015 and begins a campaign of air strikes in support of the regime.
The Islamic State (EI), which came to Iraq from Syria in 2013, initially allied with the Syrian rebel groups, came into conflict with Syria in January 2014. Since September 2014, An air strike campaign carried out by a coalition led by the United States
Meanwhile, the Kurds of the Democratic Union Party (PYD) and its armed wing, the PKK-affiliated People's Protection Units (YPG), are fighting for the self-determination of Rojava

By prolonged in time, the Syrian conflict has become at the same time civil war, energy war, war by proxy and also holy war. From March 2011 to February 2016, the conflict resulted in an estimated 260,000 to 470,000 deaths, according to estimates by various NGOs and the UN. Many massacres, war crimes and crimes against humanity have been committed, mainly by the Syrian regime and the Islamic State. The Loyalist camp is responsible for the majority of the civilian victims of the war, often because of aerial bombing. Between 100,000 and 200,000 people disappeared in the prisons of the regime, at least 12,000 to 60,000 were tortured to death. Chemical weapons have also been used. Half of the Syrian population was displaced during the conflict and between five and six million Syrians fled the country, a quarter of the population.

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