الاثنين، 22 مايو، 2017

تعبير انجليزي عن رؤية 2030

تعبير انجليزي عن رؤية 2030
Saudi Vision 2030
رؤية المملكة العربية السعودية 2030
موضوع عن السعودية بالانجليزي تعبير انشاء تقرير اقتصاد البترول السعودية الرياض
تعريف بـ "رؤية السعودية 2030"
عبير انجليزي عن رؤية 2030
رؤية 2030 بالانجليزي
vision 2030
رؤية 2030 السعودية
اهداف رؤية 2030
بحث عن رؤية 2030
رؤية السعودية 2030 في التعليم
رؤية 2030 في التعليم

Saudi Arabia unveils its post-oil economy project

Saudi Arabia presented, reform program. The ambition of this plan; End the country's addiction to oil and diversify the economy of the kingdom. Saudi Arabia wants to stop its dependence on black gold. The plan, known as the Saudi Vision 2030, was approved by the Saudi Council of Ministers. It was initiated by the Vice-Crown Prince Mohammed ben Salmane. It is now regarded as one of the main promoters of the current transition of Saudi Arabia. The latter explained that Riyadh wanted to increase tenfold the allocated capital
Saudi Arabia announced the creation of the world's richest investment fund and the sale of about 5% of the national oil giant Aramco. Two decisions to diversify an ultra-dependent economy to black gold.
Two thousand billion dollars to get out of the obsession with oil revenue. This new Saudi investment fund is one of the flagship measures of "Vision 2030", the national plan, unveiled Monday 25 April, to adapt the economy of the Wahhabi monarchy to the new energy situation. While the price of black gold continues to stagnate below the $ 50 mark, Riyadh seeks to diversify its sources of income to continue to finance its generous social policy.
Mohammed ben Salmane, the powerful vice-prince who inherited the kingdom, personally detailed the reforms that were supposed to revolutionize the Saudi economic model. The new public fund, the richest in the world, must be used to multiply investments outside the energy sector, much in the same way as Qatar has done for several years. "Investments must become the Saudi government's primary source of income," Mohammed bin Salmane said on Monday.
Attracting foreign investors
But another measure, more financial, reveals more the scope of the changes to come in Saudi Arabia. Aramco, the powerful public oil company, opened its capital to foreign investors for the first time in its history. "Saudi Arabia will sell less than 5% of Aramco during its IPO," Mohammed ben Salmane confirmed, without specifying when this giant of black gold would take his first steps on the financial markets. He hopes that this opening of capital will allow Aramco to be worth more than $ 2 trillion, or four times the stock market value of Apple, currently the largest market capitalization in the world. It is this unprecedented sale that must make it possible to finance the new investment fund.
This unprecedented decision illustrates Ryad's desire to attract foreign funds. It is in addition to the administrative simplifications for non-Saudi investors decided by the authorities at the end of March 2016. Less paperwork and the possibility to buy a share of the juicy Aramco cake: Prince Mohammed bin Salmane hopes that these changes will open A new economic era in a country where 90% of the state's revenues come from oil exports.
For the kingdom, this desire to follow a detoxification treatment with black gold becomes urgent. The decline in the price of crude in the last two years has begun to affect the standard of living of the Saudis. The government decided in early 2016 to increase the price of certain heavily subsidized products, such as gasoline, and to cut social welfare programs in order to keep public finances under control. This was not enough: revenues in 2016 are expected to be $ 137 billion (on the basis of a barrel of $ 40), while spending will be in the neighborhood of $ 225 billion.
This hole of nearly 100 billion dollars, despite a new policy of austerity, testifies to the current limits of the oil windfall. Saudi Internet users are increasingly relaying on social networks the astonished or even angry reactions of their peers in the face of the increase in the electricity or water bill, as Les Echos points out.
The Iranian Obstacle
The "Vision 2030" plan represents the optimistic counterpart of Saudi economic transition. One way for the government to say that there is more than rigor in the program. It remains to be seen whether this economic agenda will work. Nothing is less certain, according to Nathan Hudson, a specialist in Saudi economics at Princeton University. On Al-Arabya, the continuous news channel of Saudi Arabia, he recalled that "the previous plans of reforms are far from having reached their objectives".
This expert acknowledges that this time, "the officials seem seriously wanting to implement these reforms". But, he continues, the measures must be put in place quickly so as not to be caught by the decline in financial rent.
There are two main obstacles to this obligation of speed. The first is political, recalls the British magazine The Economist. Budget cuts and foot calls to foreign investors may not be popular, which could be recovered by opponents of the Crown Prince.
The second is geopolitical. Riyadh is engaged in a struggle for influence with Iran which has gained popularity in the region as a result of the normalization of its diplomatic relations with the West. This battle for regional leadership costs money, which can thwart budgetary efforts elsewhere.

The risk for Saudi Arabia and Mohammed bin Salmane is similar to that of Brunei, warns Ian Storey, a Middle East expert at the Institute of Southeast Asian Studies in Singapore, Globe and Mail. The country, heavily dependent on oil revenues, adopted in 2007 a "vision 2035" plan designed to diversify its economy. An extensive program that did not deliver the expected results, said the Quartz economic site, since in 2015, Brunei decided to increase its oil production to cope with the drop in crude prices.

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