السبت، 14 يناير، 2017

الهدر المدرسي بالانجليزية


 اسباب حلول علاج الهدر التسرب مغادرة الدراسة  المدرسي بالانجليزية
The development of risk across time and context are seen as crucial in understanding how risk develops. While individual factors, such as cognitive ability and health, are thought to causally influence risk of dropping out, we hypothesize that part of the association between individual factors and dropping out can be explained by childhood family background, which may increase the risk of dropping out of upper secondary school directly.
Further, we hypothesize that the association between dropping out and later work outcomes is to a large extent explained by both individual factors and childhood family background. We also wish to explore to what extent conditions of the workplace obtained impacts leaving the workforce; how family formation influences both transitions into, or out of, the workforce; and to what extent social and economic context influences may weaken or strengthen the pathways between dropping out on later work outcomes.
Our study is based on register data that allows us to follow all individuals in Norway from birth (between 1967 and 1976) up until 2010. We have obtained data on a wide array of explanatory variables from register and health surveys, collected over repeated time-points across the lifecourse. We shall use new analytical methods based on causal inference.
Our findings will inform us as to which mechanisms are leading to decreased work participation and dropping out. This will have implications for where interventions will have the greatest impact. If our findings suggest that most of the effect of dropping out on later outcomes is due to early family conditions, then this would imply that interventions ought be targeted at family and income policy, as opposed to placing most focus on school policies and improvements.
Why should I care?
The financial ramifications of dropping out of high school hurt more than the individual. It’s estimated that half of all Americans on public assistance are dropouts. If all of the dropouts from the class of 2011 had earned diplomas, the nation would benefit from an estimated $154 billion in income over their working lifetimes. Potentially feeding that number is the fact that young women who give up on high school are nine times more likely to be, or become, young single mothers. A study out of Northeastern University found that high school dropouts cost taxpayers $292,000 over the course of their lives.
It’s not just about the money though. Over 80 percent of the incarcerated population is high school dropouts — making this an issue that truly impacts every member of the community. Numbers are higher for dropouts of color; 22 percent of people jailed in the U.S. are black males who are high school dropouts. As a society, we are not just paying into public assistance programs for dropouts, but we are paying to protect ourselves against them through incarceration.
I wonder what these numbers would look like if we took the nearly $300K that taxpayers put in over the course of a dropout’s lifetime and deposited it into their K-12 learning upfront. If we invested that money, or even half of it, into efforts to enhance the learning experience and programs to prevent dropping out, what would that do to dropout, poverty and incarceration rates? Right now the process seems to be reactionary. What would it look like if more preventative actions were put in place?
What are some underlying causes of the high school dropout rate not mentioned here?

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